Between Giants: The HAIKU Nations’ Dance on the Geopolitical Stage

This article proposes a new geopolitical grouping of rising middle-power countries labelled “HAIKU” (Hungary, Azerbaijan, Israel, Kazakhstan, and the United Arab Emirates). Though distinct in many aspects, these nations find common ground in their geostrategic positioning, as they are located at key points in the international system between regional and great powers, and in their adoption of multivectoral foreign policy approaches. The focus of this article is to examine these commonalities, the dynamics that have led these countries to adopt their foreign policy approaches, and the potential for alignment among these states.

Authors: Carlos Roa